Finance Planning Department District Mansehra

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Home Home District Profile

District Profile

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1. INTRODUCTION:-

The name of District is derived from its headquarters town Mansehra.It is named after Man Singh, The Governor General under the rule of Ranjit Singh.Mansehra is a beautiful area and has very famous areas around it which are always are very brilliant and give a nice look to the eyes and are the best example of natural beauty.A verity of herbs is found in the district,Many of these herbs are used for medicinal purposes.These include Gulkhaira, Thandiboti, Sumbal, Kakul, Ispaghol, Khatmi and Nera. A large variety of fauna is also found in the district.This includes leopard, black bear.jackal, wild goat, brown bear, wolf and other migratory birds. Mansehra city is a major stop for tourists on the Karakoram Highway which leads to China. It is also a major transit point to the northern areas and locations such as the Kaghan Valley, Naran, Shogran, Lake Saiful Mulook and Babusar Top. It is very near to Abbottabad city.

2. HISTORY:-

Mansehra (former Pakhli Sarkar) has a very old history in the Sub-Continent. Its geographical boundaries have constantly been changed in the times of various Rajas, Maharajahs and Kings in the past. Alexander the Great after conquering the northern India established his rule over a large part of it. Different historians are of the opinion that in the year 327 B.C. Alexander handed over this area to Abisaras, the Raja of Poonch state. During Maurya dynasty Mansehra remained a part of Taxila. The Great Ashoka was the Governor of this area when he was a prince. The famous edicts of Ashoka inscribed on three rocks near Bareri hill, beside Mansehra town, are the evidence of his rule here. These edicts reflect that this area was a famous religious centre.

Thereafter the history of Mansehra is obscure up to 1399 A.D. By this time, The Muslims ousted the Hindus from power and established their authority. In the beginning Mansehra remained under the direct control of Kabul. But in 1472 A.D. Prince Shahab-ud-Din came from Kabul and established his rule here. He founded the state namely Pakhli Sarkar and chose Village Gulibagh as his capital. During the Mughal period the local Turk Chiefs acknowledged the authority of the Mughals. Since Mansehra (Pakhli) provided the main route of Kashmir, therefore, Emperor Akbar went to Kashmir via Mansehra. During the last days of Akbar the Turki Chief Sultan Hussain Khan revolted against the Mughals. His complaint was that the Mughals were interfering into his internal affairs. The Mughals exiled him after crushing his revolt but later on they pardoned him and handed over his country back to him. In 1619-20 Emperor Jahangir stayed with Hussain Khan when he was going to Kashmir.

When Ahmad Shah Durrani extended his kingdom to Punjab and Kashmir, Mansehra also came under the control of this new invader. In the beginning of the 19th century A.D. their power weakened which opened the way of revolt against them. They sent many detachments of troops to maintain law and order but rather their control decreased day by day. When the Sikhs arose in power under Ranjeet Singh (1777 - 1838 A.D.) they asserted themselves independent of the Durranis. Ranjeet Singh organized his "Khalsa" Army on modern lines and then started to extend his regime over vast area. The Sikhs got hold of Mansehra in 1818 A.D. In 1831 A.D a fierce battle took place between the Sikhs and the Mujahidin at Balakot. The Sikhs got the upper hand and martyred Syed Ahmad along with his number of friends. Thus the Sikhs hold strengthened in Mansehra. After the death of Ranjit Singh, disintegration of the Sikh state started due to which the British annexed Punjab to their dominion.

On 19th March, 1846 A.D. a peace treaty was signed between the Sikhs and the British according to which Raja Gulab Singh took Kashmir and Hazara from the British for rupees 75,00,000. In 1849 A.D. this area came under the direct control of the British. Unlike the people of the settled areas, the Pukhtoon tribes that lived on the western outskirts of Mansehra remained a constant source of trouble for the British for four decades (1852-92). The British sent more than four expeditions against them and ravaged Black Mountain (The pukhtoons abode) many times. To maintain peace in the area the British also took preventive measures having conferred titles on the leading persons.

3. LOCATION:-

Mansehra is located at 34° 14' and 35° 11' north latitudes and 72° 49' and 74° 08' east longitude. It is bounded in the north by Batagram and Kohistan districts, in the east by Muzafarabad district of Azad Jamu and Kashmir, in the south by Abbottabad and Haripur district s and in the west by Swat district.

 

Mansehra is connected with other districts of NWFP and AJK, by road network No airport is available. Total road network as per 1998 Census Report pre– earthquake is:

Metalled road 473 km

Fair-weather road 277 km

There are two national Highways namely; Karakoram Highway (KKH) and Mansehra Narran Jalkhat (MNJ) road. The former serves as a link to rest of Pakistan and the Northern Areas while the latter originates from KKH in Mansehra city and links Kaghan valley with rest of the country. It also connects to important places in the Kaghan Valley, such as Naran, Shogran, Lake Saiful Muluk and Babusar Top. The KKH passes through the district. However, both roads are prone to frequent land-slides, especially during the rainy season.

4. POPULATION OF DISTRICT MANSEHRA:-

 

Years

1981

1998

Total

770200

1,153,000

Density

168 p/Sq.km

252 pSp.km

Growth rate

2.40%

 

POPULATION BY ALL AGES, SEX AND RURAL/URBAN AREAS:-

 

Population

1,152,839

Male

571,881 (49.60%)

Female

580,958 (50.40%)

Projected up to 2010

1.6 (m)

Rural

1,090,739

Urban

61,100

Average Household

6.7%

 

5. PHYSICAL FEATURES:-

The leading distinctive features of Mansehra are its mountain ranges, the plains, the valleys and the lakes. The area has been blessed with the rich and harmonious combination of tall and stately fine trees, high mountains, plains, beautiful valleys and lakes which make it a heaven of peace. The mountain ranges which enter Mansehra district from Kashmir are the offshoots of the great Himalayan system. In Kaghan valley the mountain system is the highest of the area including the Babusar top. This range flanks the right bank of the Kunhar, contains a peak (Malika-e-Parbat) of over 17,000 feet, the highest in the district. On the mountains the grasslands are also found where Gujars and other nomads migrate during summer for grazing their sheep, goats and other animals. On the northern side there are mountains which are the extension of the same mountain system as that of Kaghan Mountains. This range diverges from the eastern side at Musa-ka-Musalla a peak (13,378 feet), which skirt the northern end of the Bhogarmang and Konsh valleys, and sends down a spur to divide the two. Here also, like Kaghan, thick forests are found especially on the higher slopes. Due to extensive exploitation only in unapproachable areas the thick forests are found.

In the west of the Siran valley the mountain ranges of Richari and Tanglai run towards the Chuttar plain. This plain is surrounded by the high mountains of Hilkot. The Batagram valley totally consists of mountains and hills. On the south of Chutter and Batagram is the Agror valley separated by the Tanglai Mountain from Pakhli through a gap which is called Sosal Galli. From Agror southward are the Tanawal Mountains, Bhingra (8,500 feet) being the highest.

Towards the west from Oghi the important Black Mountain range runs northwards. This area is termed as the tribal area and notorious for the outlaws and criminals. The mountains are generally covered with forests only on the higher places. From Mansehra town's westward the area is covered with low lying hills, the Bareri hill being prominent of them. Plain Tracts: Some plains of Mansehra worth mentioning are Pakhli, Chuttar, Agror and Mangal. Pakhli tract is 3,000 feet above the sea level, 11 mile from north to south and ten mile from east to west. It is the most fertile and intensively cultivated plain, especially on the western side and is irrigated by bourns and nullahs and the Siran River. The Chuttar plain lies on the north of the Pakhli plain and is 5, 5000 feet above the sea level, smaller in size than the former. The Agror tract is also popular in the area where rice, barley, wheat, maize and other crops are cultivated.

5.1 VALLEYS:-

There are many valleys in Mansehra among which the Kaghan valley, Konsh valley, Agror valley, Bhogarman valley and Pakhal valley are most popular. These large valleys have, taken together, produced holiday resorts such as the Kaghan valley. This particularly earned the reputation of having the most enchanting tourist resorts of Pakistan. Agror is a small valley lying at the foot of Black Mountain and is separated from Pakhli by the ridge of Tanglai. Konsh and Bhogarmang are also famous valleys.

5.2. RIVERS AND LAKES:-

Siran and Kunhar (Nain Sukh) are well known rivers of the district. The Siran issues from Panjool and flows through the western plain of Pakhli. Two canals have been taken out from the Siran River, the upper Siran canal at Dharial and lower Siran canal at Shinkiari. From Pakhli the Siran runs into the Tanawal hills and joins the Indus at Tarbela in the North West. Its total course is between 70 to 80 miles, and it irrigates 6,273 acres of land. The Kunhar bursts out from the lake Lulusar at the head of Kaghan valley and after a turbulent course of 110 miles falls in the river Jhelum at Pattan. Since the land upon its bank is little level therefore, its water is not used for irrigation purposes. Some other notable bourn and nullahs which flow in district Mansehra are Pootkattha (Mansehra), Nadi Unhar (Shergarh), Butkus (joins the Siran near Icharian) and Ichar. There are three beautiful lakes in Mansehra district. These are encircled by snow clad peaks of the mountain range in the Kaghan valley. The names of these lakes are Lulusar, Dudupatsar and Saiful Maluk Sar. The former two lie near Babusar top while the latter one near Naran. The word "sar" is used with the name of each lake meaning lake. In the summer when the water of these lakes reflects like a mirror a large number of visitors from different areas of the country come to watch the enchanting views of these lakes. With Saiful Maluk Sar a legend of mythical fairy Badri Jamal and Prince Saiful Maluk is associated while Lulu Sar is the reminiscent of those 55 participants of 1857 war of independence who had been arrested near Lulu Sar.

5.3.a. FLORA:-

According to standard classification of forest types of Pakistan (Champion, Seth and Khattak 1965) the forests fall under the major type “Montane Temperate Forests”. These forests are predominately coniferous with some broad-leaved species. Chir (Pinus roxburghii) forests form transitional stage between the Montane temperate and Dry tropical vegetation around about the elevation of 763 and 1830 m. “Chir” covers small area and is confined to lower limits .On upper limits Chir pine is mixed with blue pine (Pinus wallichiana.) The dominating species are few forming pure or mixed associations. The occurrence of species depends upon the aspect, altitude and local habitat conditions. Abies pindrow in northern aspects or moist slopes, Pinus wallichiana with Taxus wallichiana as an under storey and occasional Cedrus deodara on dryer hotter slopes.

The flora of Mansehra is a very interesting study. Due to the diversity of local topography and climate, particularly of rainfall, the flora varies from place to place. Tree species are well represented by the deciduous and evergreen types. The commonest broad leaved trees are walnut, asanthus, eucalyptus, acacia, chestnut, birth-cherry, yew, barmi, peshor, wild olive, ash, plane tree, alder, Persian lilac, elm, mulberry, and many species of willow and poplar Birch and occasionally juniper are found in the higher parts. Among the conifers there are pine, deodar, blue pine spruce and silver fir. The best-known forests of pine in Mansehra are the forest of Batrasi, Jaba, Dadar and Paraziarat. Deodar and blue pine grow in stony slopes like fir and spruce.

The general vegetation is of the shrub type which includes the shrubs or medium size trees. The common shrubs and herbs of the area are sanatha, grund, phulah, wild indigo, valerian, peony, sorrel, timar, phitni, hawthorn, oleaster, wayfaring, barberry, bamble, kamila and others. In the upper area as the snow melts by the approach of the spring followed by summer, the whole area gives the appearance of a vast flower bed, dominated by the number of annual and perennial herbs. Apple, apricot, plum, fig, pear, wild pear, mango, orange, damson, litchi, and persimmon are worth mentioning fruit trees of the area. Sunflower, rose, jasmine, jasmine-zambak, narcissus, tulip, lily, dog violet, brush flax, iris and must-rose are included in the flora of Mansehra.

5.3.b. FAUNA:-

Mansehra district sprawling over an area of 4579 sq. km. had been traditionally the home of variety and plenty from faunistic point of view. The expansion in agricultural activities has affected the natural habitats of the area. The fresh water fauna is directly or indirectly dependent on the local rainfall, natural springs, and mostly the Kunhar and Siran rivers. The Kunhar River abounds in trout fish, a hot favourite for amateur fishing zeal. A trout fish hatchery has been established at Shinu (Kaghan) to supplement the fish numbers. China corp. gold fish, mullah, chukar and eel are found in the Siran. In avian fauna are included several species of Herons, Teals, Doves, Cuckoos, Bee Eaters, Wood Peckers, Larks, Shrikes, Bulbuls, Finches and Wagtails are widely dispersed in gardens, Cultivated Fields, Streams And Hill Slopes. Swallows, Parrots, Mainas, Pigeon, Sparrows, Hoopoe, Kingfishers and Crows are also found, while western horned tragopan, imperial monal pheasant, and kokla pheasant are found only in hilly areas, whereas black and grey partridges as well as quails are also common. The birds of prey are shikra, sparrow hawk, owl and several species of vulture. Mansehra still has varied mammalian fauna despite the fact that the mammals had the hardest time directly or indirectly through man's persecution. The rhesus monkeys and the common lungur are dwelling in large numbers. Among the carnivores, lion and cheetah became extinct while the snow leopard and leopard are endangered species. The snow leopard moves up and down the mountains with its favourite prey like markhor. The other animals found in Mansehra are Wolf, Red Fox, Black and Brown Bears, Jackal, Leopard, Leopard Cat, Himalayan Lynx, Mongoose, Musk Deer, Grey Goral and Ibex. The pet animals are Camel, Buffalo, Cow, Horse, Donkey, Sheep and Goat.

5.4. SCENERY:-

The natural scenery and climate of Mansehra has a great attraction for the tourists. Low and bare hills that fringe the level tracts have attraction of their own, panoramic view of widespread plain and invigorating fresh air in all seasons and the higher hills with pine covered slopes, the snow capped peaks of Kaghan, Bhogarmang, Konsh, Allai and the regions beyond the mountains are torrents and water-falls. The peaceful lakes of Kaghan, the villages perched on almost inaccessible heights and the green valleys are appealing to the lovers of beauty. These lovers of beauty rejoice when they walk on mountain crests and see the mists sweeping up. They can listen to the roars of water from behind the great grey curtain, and look at the torrent at their feet tumbling over the rocks down gully and glen. The stillness of the dawn, of noon and of evening as well as the winds pure and austere is really most enchanting for the lovers of beauty.

5.5 CLIMATE:-

The climate of the district is warm in summer and cold in winter. The northern part where there are high mountains is cold in summer due to snow clad mountains and is very cold in winter. The total annual rainfall of the district according to 1972 census report is 72 inches. Temperature ranges from 2oC to 36oC in the district.

6. ECONOMIC SCENARIO OF THE DISTRICT:-

Mansehra foremost economy depends on diverse alternatives such as poultry, mining, agriculture, tourism and reliance on natural resources. Its population growth rate is higher,but its land fertiliuty offer great opportunity for rthe people to earn and fulfill their daily needs.

Agricultural product of the area includes wheat.peas,and other seasonal vegetables.Due to favourable climate conditioins,the district is rich in vegetables and fruits.Vegetables includes cabbage.reddish and carrots and fruits of this area includes paeches.plums and pears.District mansehra is affluent in flora.A diversity of herbs is found in all over the district.

Livestock and fisheries are the main source of milk and meat.Profusion of poultry forms are also found in this district.Bullocks and cows are also used for ploughing.District mansehra is also one of the major mining region of the NWFP.In terms of infrastructyre,the district is well served by both major roads and telecommunication networks.

Mansehra also hasy much importance from tourist point of view.It has famous hill stations,historical lakes,and gorgeous valleys which provides charming scenic and beauty to the eyes.Tourism contributes much to the GDP of Pakistan.

The economy of therr area is largely agrarian, with high dependence on the natural resources which have already depleted.Due to high population growth rate,small land holdings and lack of alternative sources of income ,the pressure oin land and natural resources continously increasing.

 

 

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